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Since 2009, New York City Local Law 84 has mandated that owners of large building measure and report energy and water use. Known as "Benchmarking" the law is one of four that comprise the New York City Greener, Greater Building Plan (GGBP) enacted to reduce energy use, increase energy efficiency and promote clean energy 30 percent by 2030. The law's primary purpose is to standardize that process for capturing and reporting on the data needed to measure its success in achieving these and other goals set forth in the unprecedented citywide green initiative, PlaNYC .

The GGBP Targets Large Buildings

The GGBP suite of laws, including LL 84, specifically target the largest New York City buildings. The law doesn't exempt any property types. Large buildings constitute half of the City's built square footage and 45 percent of citywide energy use and produce about 75 percent of New York City’s green house gas (GHG) emissions come from energy used in buildings.

According to the site metered.nyc, LL84 applies to, "all private buildings larger than 50,000 square feet (about a 50-unit apartment building) and all properties with two or more buildings that combined are larger than 100,000 square feet, with a small threshold for city-owned properties."

You can find a listing of buildings that fall under the jurisdiction of the GGBP and LL84 at Covered Building List.

Annual Reporting Is Required

An annual report for the previous year's energy and water consumption must be submitted to a free online benchmarking tool by May 1st. Building owners who fail to complete submission on subsequent deadline dates (Aug. 1, Nov. 1 and Feb. 1) will incur additional penalties of $500 per quarter up to a maximum of $2,000.

The Submission Process

In New York City building owners or their hired consultants log into Portfolio Manager, enter defining characteristics for a building, and provide data from a calendar year’s worth of energy bills. The tool, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, applies calculations and algorithms to the data to generate information about a building's energy use per square foot, carbon emissions , and for some, a 1-to-100 score that can be used to compare it against similar buildings across the nation.

Submission instructions for owners is provided on the How to Comply page at NYC.gov or you can enlist the help of Scott Henson Architect to manage your energy use reporting and compliance. We can also provide consulting and expertise on improving energy results, year-over-year.

For more information about our LL84 usage reporting services, reach out to us.

Many may wonder why anyone would choose historic building preservation over building something brand new. Historic building restoration provides many benefits to a community and preserves a link to the past. Preserving historic buildings can also prevent urban sprawl in many communities, as restoring existing buildings may eliminate the need to build something new.

Preservation is also an eco-friendly option. It eliminates the need for demolition and the vast amount of resources necessary for building something new from the ground up. Demolition can also release harmful toxins from older building materials into the air and soil, while renovation can be done in a safer manner to reduce exposure to these toxins. Overall, renovation reduces garbage, preserves resources, and saves money.

Historic buildings add warmth, charm, and appeal that cannot be found in more modern, stark architecture. Cities and towns with a surplus of modern buildings lose the ties to history that define the community and make it unique. Historic buildings have details, materials, and craftsmanship that cannot be found in modern architecture. Preserving these buildings not only provides a community with a link to their past, but also teaches new generations of builders about techniques used in the past that they may apply to their work today.

Restoring historic buildings can provide a much-needed face-lift to a deteriorating neighborhood, and sometimes attract investors. Tax incentives and grants can drastically cut the costs of restoration, and in many cases, investors can make a decent amount of money. Tourists LOVE historic buildings, and restoring buildings to their original splendor can create a hot spot for visitors-this means a business boom for the entire community. Depending on the function of the building, restoration can also mean new jobs for community members.

Sometimes old buildings sit for decades without being touched or used for anything at all. They become an eyesore without any function. Yet many cities face problems of overcrowded classrooms or lack of housing. Restoring these buildings solves two problems at once-it turns an eyesore into a magnificent structure, and provides a functional use to the community as well. Many historic buildings have been renovated for functional use as schools, libraries, housing units, or a site for community events.

Historical building preservation beautifies communities, attracts tourists, creates more business, and offers functional solutions to community needs. Please feel free to contact us to learn more about preserving and renovating historic buildings.

Today marks three years since hurricane Sandy devastated the Northeast. In those three years, the community has banded together to rebuild. This courageous effort and relentless force is what has restored the shore.
During Sandy, a ‘Major Retailer’ store that had been built atop concrete piers along the shoreline of Gravesend Bay in Brooklyn was severely damaged by the surge of water that flooded the city. The storm was devastating. The concrete slab floors of the store rippled with the waves and were shattered and displaced, with water geysering up through the slab into the store! The damage rendered the retail building un-usable.

Following the storm, the ‘Major Retailer’s management contacted Scott Henson Architect’s trusted team to spearhead the effort of installing a temporary tent in the store’s parking lot. This tent would serve as a sales floor until the brick and mortar store could be repaired. The re-establishment of a sales floor was critical at this time because this ‘Major Retailer’ served as a primary source of goods that were vital to the neighborhood. The goal? To be open and functional by 11/23 (‘Black Friday’).

While Lower Manhattan through Midtown remained without electricity and the SHA office closed, Scott Henson walked across the Brooklyn Bridge to meet with the Brooklyn Borough Commissioner, Ira Gluckman, to discuss the necessity of the tent and map out a course of action through the city agency approval process. He was on a mission to get the tent approved in time for the Black Friday deadline.

During the following two weeks, SHA worked with the project team, including the Owner’s tent manufacturer from Europe and in-house consultant team, SHA’s structural engineering consultant, Gilsanz Murray Steficek, and expeditor Marty Marcus from Property Intervention Consultants to ensure the tent was filed, approved and installed by the Thanksgiving deadline. Scott Henson met personally with the Borough Commissioner on multiple occasions and filed with the NYC Dept. of Buildings, Dept. of Transportation, and the Fire Dept. of New York.

The SHA team worked in coordination with the project team to adapt the tent manufacturer’s European standards to NYC standards, determine proper structural anchoring, interior sales layouts, mechanical heating/cooling layouts, fire protections/evacuation layouts and delivery/stock logistics.

All the hard work and long days paid off. The tent was approved, installed and stocked by the Monday prior to Thanksgiving, providing time for logistics to be ironed-out by Black Friday. Dedication to the cause always wins.

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45 Greene Street

This building is located between Grand Street and Broome Street in the SoHo Cast Iron District. It was designed by architect J. Morgan Slade for retail use and was completed in 1882. The neo-Grec style street façade is composed of painted cast iron detailing.

We were contracted to perform a full exterior inspection and restoration plan under special agreement with the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission.

Zoe Rosenberg reports for Curbed: Behold, Brooklyn's Magnificently Restored Kings Theatre.

Two years ago to the day that the city embarked on a $94 million restoration of the Loew's Kings Theatre in Flatbush, the institution reopened its doors and reclaimed its standing as Brooklyn's largest theater. The restoration was painstaking: when it began in 2013, the theater had already been sitting vacant for four decades, a time during which looters plundered everything that wasn't bolted down (and most of the things that were), and nature found its way into the neglected structure.

"The carpets used to kind of squish when you walked around," Jeff Greene of EverGreene Architectural Arts said recalling the building in its pre-restoration state, when, during inclement weather, water would gush through the ceiling, down the balconies, and pool amidst the theater seats. Looking at the majestic space now, any traces of its derelict state have been absolutely erased. From the brink of utter deterioration, the former Loew's Wonder Theatre has been saved and returned to the city perhaps in a more glorious state even than before.

Every inch of the Kings Theatre has been meticulously restored, and what work could be sourced locally was. Looters ransacked the building in the 40 years it sat unoccupied, tearing out everything from copper wiring to six of the promenade's seven gorgeous chandeliers.

The six missing chandeliers were replaced with recreations made in Queens that were based on the one remaining fixture. Nowadays, it's nearly impossible to tell which is the original and which are recreations. But such is the case with nearly every surface in the theater—when the restoration began, project architects Martinez+Johnson Architecture and EverGreene Architectural Arts stepped into a giant mess of a place. EverGreene, a firm that specializes in historically accurate renovations, went so far as to analyze old photographs under microscopes to determine the exact right paint colors for the theater. What's incredible is that a space that took one year to build from the ground up in 1928 took twice as long and a lot more energy to bring back to life in 2013-2014. Borough President Eric Adams presided over the theater's ribbon cutting ceremony. 

"Brooklyn, the county of Kings, has cleaned off its crowned jewel," he declared nothing short of enthusiastically. The theater is being looked at as a hub for cultural and economic activity in a needing area of Brooklyn. Adams is quick to dismiss the theater as a "gentrification thing", though. The restoration of the theater has been in the works, quietly, for decades. Former borough president Marty Markowitz, who coincidentally had his first date at the Loew's Kings, had been attempting to get the renovation rolling as far back as two decades ago. Had that happened, perhaps the theater would have ended up as the multiplex Magic Johnson—yes, the basketball player—wanted it to become. Now, it will host live music shows and cultural events like Disney Live! performances. The theater's inaugural performance on January 27 was postponed due to inclement weather.

Diana Ross will spearhead the theatre's public opening with a concert on February 3. "Mazel Tov!," someone in the crowd yelled as the ribbon was cut. Smiles all around. As much as was possible, construction supplies for the theater were purchased locally.

And into the theater we go. The two-tiered room might not look that big in photographs, but the theater, with its 3,000 seats, is the largest in Brooklyn and the third largest in the entire city.

While the interiors were painstakingly restored, they were also brought up to modern standards that include this glowing disco emblem, whose lights can change colors. Kidding aside, the theater was updated with lights, acoustic absorption panels, and surround sound. Another place that was updated to meet modern demands is in the bathrooms, which were gutted, made ADA accessible, and multiplied.

In 1929, the theater had 26 toilets for women. In 2015, it has 75. Except for the area under a severe ceiling leak, all of the wood in the theater was salvaged which is an amazing feat, considering that Neil Heyman of Gilbane Building Company compared the theater when restoration began to"Titanic raised above water." Let that image sink in. As part of the theater's revamp, it has dropped the original "Loew's" name.

Because the theater was originally built in 1929, there were few, if any, architectural drawings for EverGreene and ACE Theatrical Group to pull from. Instead, the theater's specs, all the way down to its fabrics and paint colors, were determined by viewing historic photographs of the space under microscopes. As a result, the theater almost has a patina rather than looking brand spanking new. The theater was sheathed in scaffolding for nine months as it was being worked on. A few surprising things were discovered during the renovation beyond all of the gum and ephemera found under the theater's seats. Gilbane's Neil Heyman said a construction crew found a love letter inside one of the theater's walls.

Although after searching, they found that both the author and recipient of the letter had passed, a genealogy search turned back the niece of the woman who had penned the letter, and it was given to her for safe keeping. "There's a lot of life in the theater," he said. Another pleasant surprise came when a 100-year-old woman who served as the theater's last house manager contacted the restoration crew to tell them that she was in possession of six original chairs from the theater's lobby and that she wished to return them to their home. If you look closely, there are recurring motifs in the theater's decorations. Most notably, faces. Thousands and thousands of faces.

According to one of the guys working in the theater, these odd statues were all found decapitated when restoration began. Where the original heads may be now is still a mystery. While they're lovely, they're a bit creepy. No? The theater, which opened in 1929 and shuttered in 1977, has a lot of history with the community it served. Crews working on the building were constantly approached by neighborhood residents who, remembering past life experiences like graduations and first dates, constantly wanted to peek inside.

"There were so many curiosity seekers that we couldn't help ourselves but to keep the doors open from time to time," Heyman said, echoing sentiments from the ribbon cutting ceremony that the community has great respect for the history of the building. A carving inside one of the building's original fountains reads "Drink and be refreshed."

The glorious result of the restoration was achieved through a number of parties; with funding from the state of New York, NYCEDC and the Kings Theatre Redevelopment Company, which consists of ACE Theatrical Group, Goldman Sachs Urban Investment Group, and the National Development Council. Gilbane was the project's general contractor, and Martinez+Johnson were the project architects. To view more photos click here.

Phil Miller reports for The Scottish Herald:

Build a new library at Mackintosh Building, not a replica, says leading architect. The world famous Charles Rennie Mackintosh library which was destroyed in the fire at the Glasgow School Of Art should not be rebuilt as a "replica" copy, a leading Scottish architect has declared. Alan Dunlop believes that the school should instead open up an international competition to find an innovative modern architect who can build a new library. A new facility, he believes, can be built in the space where the former Mackintosh Library stood in the west wing of the building.

Professor Dunlop believes that Mackintosh himself would not have wanted to simply replicate what had gone before. Mackintosh, he says, was an architect who developed and advanced his designs, rather than repeated what he had already done.
The Mackintosh Library (before the fire).
 
The library, and most of its contents, was destroyed in the May fire, and its remnants are currently being explored and analysed by forensic archaeologists as the school begins the long and expensive process of revitalising the building. Professor Dunlop, who with Gordon Murray designed the copper-clad Radisson Hotel on Glasgow's Argyle Street, and the steel-clad Spectrum Building in the city's Blythswood Street, said he is "seriously against the idea of remaking the Mackintosh library." The architect, who trained at the GSA, said: "There is a debate going on about what should be done and I am worried at the moment - I think rebuilding it would just be just a replica of Mackintosh, and I am sure you could do it, but the best thing would to have a new idea, something new which is worthy of the Mackintosh Building. "There is actually no way you can replace it as it was, there was 100 years of age and patina that you would have to replicate. "I don't think it would be what Mackintosh would do - just look at the expansion of his work in the years between each part of the Mackintosh Building being built [in 1899 and 1909]." Earlier this year, David Mullane, a former director of the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society, who chairs the Friends Of The GSA organisation, said he believed a rebuilt version of library could be an "embarrassment" and a prime example of "Mockintosh". Professor Dunlop, who does not himself want to design a new library, said that the former library had essentially become a museum, not a viable working room for students and staff. He said he was worried the debate was leaning towards replicating the Mackintosh Library as it once was. "I know people will be naturally wary of this, but if we get the right architect it can be done thoughtfully," he added. "But I do think it is time to really debate the question of what will be done with the space." A spokeswoman for the GSA said: "We warmly welcome input into the debate around the future of the Mackintosh Library and will be listening to a wide range of views before making a final decision on the way forward." Professor Dunlop is an academic and teacher as well as an architect, and he has taught in the USA, UK, Germany and also lectured internationally. In his practice, he has won over 50 national and international awards.  

Martin Filler reports for The New York Review of Books: A Scandalous Makeover at Chartres.

Chartres Cathedral, with repainted vaulting in the choir contrasting with the existing nave and transepts in the foreground, Chartres, France, July 11, 2012

Over a lifetime of looking at buildings, a few have stood out as soul-stirring experiences. High among them is Chartres Cathedral, which I first saw some thirty years ago.

Though I had long been acquainted with this renowned Gothic landmark through photographs, I was quite unprepared for the visceral impact of its dark, soaring interior, especially the famous stained glass windows that glowed like precious gems set into the intricately carved stone walls. I began to understand how this overwhelming creation could be perceived as heaven on earth.

During a recent trip to Paris I decided it was time for a return visit, and on an autumn Sunday morning my wife, our friends, and I traveled sixty miles southwest of the French capital to take in this architectural wonder. It was crisp and sunny, perfect weather for viewing the celebrated vitraux, widely considered the finest in the world. As we entered the great church, which was largely constructed between 1194 and 1230, High Mass was in full swing—the scene heightened by the combination of majestic organ music, chanted liturgy, clouds of incense, and banks of votive candles.

Carried away by the splendors of the moment, I did not initially realize that something was very wrong. I had noticed the floor-to-ceiling scrim-covered scaffolding near the crossing of the nave and transepts, but had assumed it was routine maintenance. But my more attentive wife, the architectural historian Rosemarie Haag Bletter—who as a Columbia doctoral candidate took courses on Romanesque sculpture with the legendary Meyer Schapiro and Gothic architecture with the great medievalist Robert Branner—immediately noticed that large areas of the sanctuary’s deep gray limestone surface had been painted. The first portion she pointed out was a pale ochre wall patterned with thin, perpendicular white lines mimicking mortar between masonry blocks. Looking upward we then saw panels of blue faux marbre, high above them gilded column capitals and bosses (the ornamental knobs where vault ribs intersect), and, nearby, floor-to-ceiling piers covered in glossy yellow trompe l’oeil marbling, like some funeral parlor in Little Italy.

The apse of Chartres Cathedral, with piers repainted in yellow faux marble.

How could this be happening, and why had we heard nothing about it before?

In 2009, amid a rising wave of other refurbishments of medieval buildings, the French Ministry of Culture’s Monuments Historiques division embarked on a drastic, $18.5 million overhaul of the eight-hundred-year-old cathedral. Though little is specifically known about the church’s original appearance—despite small traces of pigment at many points throughout the interior stonework—the project’s leaders, apparently with the full support of the French state, have set out to do no less than repaint the entire interior in bright whites and garish colors that are intended to return the sanctuary to its medieval state. This sweeping program to “reclaim” Chartres from its allegedly anachronistic gloom is supposed to be completed in 2017. The belief that a heavy-duty reworking can allow us see the cathedral as its makers did is not only magical thinking but also a foolhardy concept that makes authentic artifacts look fake. To cite only one obvious solecism, the artificial lighting inside the present-day cathedral—which no one has suggested removing—already makes the interiors far brighter than they were during the Middle Ages, and thus we can be sure that the painted walls look nothing like they would have before the advent of electricity. Furthermore, the exact chemical components of the medieval pigments remain unknown. The original paint is thought to have flaked off within a few generations and not been replaced, so for most of the building’s eight-century history it has not been experienced with painted surfaces. The emerging color scheme now allows a direct, and deeply disheartening, before-and-after comparison.

It seems astonishing that such a radical undertaking has attracted so little attention since the project commenced, not least in view of the cathedral’s status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site—a designation it has held since 1979 and that requires careful adherence to best conservation practices. Consider the international furor raised by the cleaning of Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel frescoes (1980-1994), which the Columbia art historian James Beck and some other specialists insisted had ruinously removed a crucial final layer of glazing. Other scholars disputed that claim, however, and in the opinion of many, myself included, the ultimate emergence of characteristically high-keyed Mannerist colors—acidulous pinks, greens, yellows, and oranges—from beneath the Sistine ceiling’s long-predominant blues and browns confirmed the project’s correctness.

In contrast, the startling change in color and tone at Chartres felt particularly misjudged as we walked through the broad ambulatory that curves around the east end of the church behind the high altar. Before the intervention, it was a shadowy Nautilus shell where each successive window emerged with the surprise and force of a revelation. Now, the pale new atmosphere, heightened by modern lighting, recalls a picture by Pieter Saenredam, the Dutch Golden Age artist who specialized in views of chaste Gothic church interiors that had been stripped and whitewashed during the Protestant Reformation to expunge the rich embellishments of Roman Catholicism. In this part of the cathedral one can already determine how the lighter wall colors change our perception of the incomparable stained glass, whose effect is hugely diminished by their new surroundings. Whereas the old, age-darkened masonry heightened the intense colors of the windows, the new paint subverts them.

As Adrien Goetz wrote in Le Figaro last month (in one of the very few critical accounts of the overhaul in France), the new effect is like “watching a film in a movie theater where they haven’t turned off the lights.” In fact, medievalists have been alarmed for some time about this approach to renovation, which despite its recent vogue in France seems to violate international conservation protocols. France is a founding member of the 1964 Charter of Venice, an international agreement on the preservation and restoration of ancient monuments and sites. But the art historian C. Edson Armi—a scholar of medieval Chartres and author of The “Headmaster” of Chartres and the Origins of “Gothic” Sculpture (1994)—maintains that “Those in charge [at the Monuments Historiques] today do not accept the principles of the Charter, which decries covering over or permanently altering original stonework in the process of restoring it.”

The ambulatory of Chartres Cathedral, with repainted vaulting visible (right), July 11, 2012.

Armi, who is professor emeritus of art history at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Columbia contemporary of Rosemarie’s and mine, cites one particularly egregious instance of current French practices:  

At Paray-le-Monial, one of the handful of most important Romanesque buildings in France, where the entire interior surface, including capitals, has been coated in fire-engine orange. Frédéric Didier, the restoration architect, found no trace of Romanesque paint, but instead found a small patch of fifteenth-century color, and used it as a model to redo the entire inside of the church.

Didier is now in charge of the Chartres repainting, and his resumé also includes what some observers deem his heavy-handed renovation of the Palace of Versailles, begun in 2003, which has included the sandblasting of stone surfaces, a damagingly abrasive practice contrary to Charter of Venice guidelines. A cheery 2009 report in The Independent, titled “Bright Future for a Gothic Wonder,” presumably expressed the restoration team’s rationale when it asserted that “This is not a repaint but, in the case of 80 percent of the walls and roofs, a restoration of the original thirteenth-century décor, rediscovered only twenty years ago under the dirt and mistakes of the centuries.” Without question the ancient building has degraded over the centuries, but it would have benefited from a very different, more sensitive cleaning that avoided the wholesale transmogrification of the sort that has wrecked Paray-le-Monial. As Armi notes, “an important driver in this ‘philosophy’ of restoration is money.”

With such a large budget at Chartres one can imagine a motivation to do more rather than less. In addition to receiving funds from the French government and the European Union, this undertaking has been supported by the American Friends of Chartres. When the Monuments Historiques’ architect-in-chief, Patrice Calvel, addressed the group at Harvard in 2010, he emphasized the urgency of turning the renovation into an international concern. I could not agree more about raising a worldwide alarm about this unfolding cultural disaster. Observant Catholics, whose primary interest in the cathedral is religious rather than aesthetic, have been particularly appalled by one aspect of the program: the repainting of Our Lady of the Pillar, the early-seventeenth-century devotional statue of the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child familiarly known as the Black Madonna.

As Jean Markale argues in Cathedral of the Black Madonna: The Druids and the Mysteries of Chartres (1988)—an intriguing study of the links between the Christian sanctuary and the Druidic shrine it superseded—there was a direct precedent for Our Lady of the Pillar in the Celtic black mother goddess Sulevia, another case of early Christianity co-opting indigenous beliefs to attract pagans. Whenever and however Chartres’s Black Madonna acquired its mysterious patina—through oxidation or smoke from candles and incense—it was familiar as such to centuries of the faithful until its recent multicolored makeover, which has transformed the Mother of God into a simpering kewpie doll.

We know that ancient Greek statues were painted in vivid polychrome and adorned with earrings, spears, and other metal accouterments. But the idea of actually adding such long-lost elements to, say, the Parthenon Marbles would be even more controversial than the longstanding debate over where those sculptures should be housed. Officials in charge at Chartres now are engaged in a pursuit as foolhardy as adding a head to the Winged Victory of Samothrace or arms to the Venus de Milo. One can only pray that by some miracle this scandalous desecration of a cultural holy place can be reversed.  

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Stella Tower Gets Back Its Crown

Anna Bergren Miller reports for The Architect's Newspaper: How Stella Tower Got Its Glory Back.

JDS Development Group and Property Market Group's renovation of Ralph Walker-designed Stella Tower included restoring the Art Deco Crown.

When JDS Development Group and Property Markets Group purchased the 1927 Ralph Walker high-rise in Manhattan’s Hell’s Kitchen neighborhood in order to transform it into the Stella Tower condominiums, they realized that something was not quite right about the roofline. “The building had a very odd, plain parapet of mismatched brick,” recalled JDS founder Michael Stern.

“We were curious about why it had this funny detail that didn’t belong to the building.” The developers tracked down old photographs of the property and were pleasantly surprised by what they saw: an intricate Art Deco thin dome crown. “We were very intrigued by putting the glory back on top of the building,” said Stern. They proceeded to do just that, deploying a combination of archival research and modern-day technology to recreate a remarkable early-twentieth-century ornament.

Demolition crews uncovered intact portions of the crown base.

The developers, who had previously worked together on 111 West 57th Street and Walker Tower, another Ralph Walker renovation, began with what Stern calls “archeology” or “surgical demolition” of the crown area. The excavation revealed that the entire base of the crown remained behind the bricks added by Verizon, the building’s previous owner.

They also tracked down original drawings of the building, which showed the shape of the crown and some of its dimensions. “We didn’t have shop drawings—we didn’t have a road map,” said Stern. “My team had to basically reverse engineer the crown using the drawings as a guide.” They also leaned on 3D scans of the base to fill in the missing dimensions, and constructed a 3D model of the crown in SolidWorks. The SolidWorks model helped the developers answer important questions, like how many new pieces should be cast, how they would be installed, and what support would be required.

A local cast company produced 48 new pieces for the reconstruction.

JDS Construction, who led the reconstruction effort, called on Corinthian Cast Stone to fabricate the new pieces. Corinthian cast a total of 48 pieces for the upper half of the crown in colored concrete. To support the new work, JDS designed a complexsteel structure for the inside of the crown. They assembled the entire structure offsite before disassembling it and lifting it to the top of Stella Tower using a custom pulley and lever system. Eight craftsmen installed the precast pieces one at a time over the course of approximately five weeks.

Each precast piece was clipped to the steel structure, then mortared to its mates. The design and fabrication process, which began with the decision three years ago to reproduce the crown, culminated this September. “The crown is so spectacular,” said Stern. “It’s better than the invention of the wheel.” Besides his pride in the crown in and of itself, Stern sees the Stella Tower project as a chance to restore Ralph Walker’s place in the architectural canon.

In addition to recreating the crown, JDS and Property Markets Group recast every piece of cast stone and replaced every window and every mismatched brick on the building’s exterior. “We’ve fixed some of the wrongs history has done to the building,” he noted. “This was a great telecom building by one of the fathers of New York architecture, but over the years his buildings have been lost in the landscape. With Walker Tower and Stella Tower, we’re trying to bring attention back to his legacy.” To view a video and more images click here.

Henry Melcher reports for The Architect's Newspaper: The Kings Theater's Second Act. Brooklyn's largest and most stunning theater gets a meticulous renovation.

In September, 1929, the grand and extravagant Kings Theater—one of Loew’s “Wonder Theaters”—opened its doors in Flatbush, Brooklyn.

Designed by Rapp & Rapp, the palatial space hosted vaudeville shows, and later films, inside a grand auditorium that could seat more than 3,000 people. With its ornate plasterwork, soaring ceilings, and two-thousand-pound chandeliers, the Kings Theatre was intended to have all the detail and elegance of Versailles. And it did, until the 1970s when the curtain fell at Kings.

The once bustling venue stayed dark for the next 37 years. But now, after a two-year, $93 million renovation, the Kings Theater is slated to start its second act this January. Washington, D.C.–based architecture firm Martinez+Johnson is leading the transformation with meticulous precision and attention to every detail in the 93,000-square-foot space.

The Theater before Restoration.

The Theater before Restoration.

To return the theater to its original glory, the team looked through old newspaper articles, photos, and playbills to get a sense of the space at its prime. They salvaged everything that they could and painstakingly recreated everything they could not. When a section of wood in the foyer was damaged beyond repair, it was replaced with a new piece, taken from the same type of wood.

The Theater under Restoration.

The Theater under Restoration.

The Theater under Restoration.

But before any plaster could be restored, or paint retouched, the long-abandoned Kings had to be structurally secured. “Some of the damage came from vandalism,” said Gary Martinez, president of Martinez+Johnson, on a recent tour of the theater, “mother nature took care of the rest.”

A new roof had to be installed and recreations of all that was ripped out had to be brought back in. The theater also had to be transformed into a 21st century performing arts venue. This meant altering the seating rake for better sightlines, installing state-of-the-art lighting and sound systems, adding a new ventilation system, and installing new bathrooms, concessions, loading docks, and dressing rooms. And the entire space had to be made ADA compliant. When the restoration is complete, Kings Theatre will be the third largest theatre in the city.  

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Modernist House Brought Back to Life

Spencer Peterson reports for Curbed: This Modernist Cape Cod Cottage Was Saved Via Kickstarter.

       

The Kickstarter-funded restoration of Cape Cod's Weidlinger House has successfully pulled the modernist gem back from the brink. Last pictured in a pretty sorry state, with all of its glass windows and doors missing, its interior weathered by the elements, and a large chunk of its southwest corner taken out by a felled tree, the vacation home of renowned structural engineer Paul Weidlinger has been restored to its sleek and rational 1953 look, marking yet another triumph for the Cape Cod Modern House Trust.

       

When designing the house, Paul Weidlinger, the founder of prominent structural engineering and applied science firm Weidlinger Associates, Inc., borrowed many ideas from the homes that lauded architect Marcel Breuer designed in Wellfleet, Massachusetts: the cladding of striated Weldtex plywood, the division between public and private areas.
 
As Architectural Record notes,the rectilinear three-bedroom cottage also sports a covered veranda connected to the ground by a Corbusian ramp. Established in 2007, the CCMHT does its work by signing 10-year leases on neglected homes owned by the National Parks Service. The trust helps fund these efforts by renting out the restored homes, so hop to it, design-minded vacationers.  

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